Comparative levels of carbonyl delivery between mass-market cigars and cigarettes
The recent 2016 deeming of cigars by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has led to an increased interest in cigar science, including ways to accurately measure the harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found within mainstream cigar smoke. At present, there are a limited number of standardized methods available for the evaluation of HPHCs in mainstream cigar smoke, except for nicotine and carbon monoxide. This study sought to investigate carbonyl delivery in commercially available cigars and cigarillos and compare them to levels found in cigarettes. First the standard cigarette method, CORESTA Recommended Method No. 74 (CRM 74), was optimized for cigar smoking, including evaluation of the trapping efficiency and the stability of the carbonyl-hydrazone adducts due to the increased smoke time required for cigar collection. The optimized trapping solution was then applied in a survey of the carbonyl delivery in commercially available cigars and cigarillos for comparison to published cigarette data. Smoked under CRM 64 conditions, cigars were found to yield similar levels of formaldehyde to those found in commercially available cigarettes (20.2 ± 11.7 vs. 22.1 ± 13.5 µg/cig respectively). Greater levels of acetaldehyde (2133 ± 470 vs. 365 ± 176.5 µg/cig), acrolein (52.7 ± 23.7 vs. 33.4 ± 17.0 µg/cig) and crotonaldehyde (42.4 ± 14.7 vs. 14.7 ± 6.8 µg/cig) were observed in cigar mainstream smoke when compared to cigarettes collected under conditions prescribed by ISO standard 3308. Furthermore, cigarettes smoked under the Health Canada Intense smoking regime delivered higher levels of formaldehyde (20.2 ± 11.7 vs. 74.6 ± 24.0 µg/cig), acrolein (52.7 ± 23.7 vs. 120.5 ± 14.9 µg/cig) and crotonaldehyde (42.4 ± 14.7 vs. 51.5 ± 8.7 µg/cig) emissions as compared to cigars smoked under the CORESTA regime, while acetaldehyde was found to be higher in cigar emissions (2133 ± 470 vs. 1234 ± 147 µg/cig).