The improvement of the quality of flue-cured tobacco in Romania - main objective of the research activity
Besides the agrotechnics used, the curing practices and the growing area, the cultivar grown has a primordial role in obtaining a raw flue-cured material of higher quality.
The improvement of Virginia tobacco quality represents a permanent objective of the research in Romania, especially as over the last few years, the growing of this type of tobacco has also spread into parts of the country other than the traditional growing areas. In these zones, the soil and climatic conditions are less favourable for the expression of the characteristics typical for this type (taste, special aroma, content of carbohydrates). To avoid the lowering of tobacco quality, the selection of proper cultivars for these areas is necessary, as well as strictly adhering to the growing technology.
In this way, in the period 2000 - 2002, 9 genotypes of flue-cured tobacco were tested in a comparative contest culture, in 3 zones with different soil and climatic conditions of Romania (the southern Oltenia, the Transylvania Plain and the Baragan Plain), and the experimental results can be summarized as follows:
- In southern Oltenia, the best results were obtained with the recently released cultivar Virginia 180, with the following performances: 1,700 kgs/ha cured tobacco, 80.8% tobacco at the superior and I classes of quality, 15.7 - 21.4% carbohydrates, 3.5 - 5.3% polyphenols, 5.5 - 5.9% albumines and 1.7 - 2.3% alkaloids;
- In the Transylvania plain, the genotypes Virginia 177 and Virginia 165 (lines with double resistance to PVY and TMV), record the best results: 1,700 - 1,850 kgs/ha cured tobacco, 80 - 83 tobacco at the superior and I classes, 15.9 - 19.8 carbohydrates, 4.8 - 5.1% polyphenolys, 5.4 - 5.8% albumines and 1.6 - 2.1% alkaloids;
- In the Baragan plain, on chernozems, obeying the growing technology, yields of very good quality tobacco are obtained growing any of the three genotypes highlighted in the southern Oltenia (Virginia 180), and in the Transylvania plain (Virginia 177 and Virginia 165).