Bull. Spec. CORESTA Symposium, Kallithea, 1990, p. 185, PP03, ISSN.0525-6240
Survey of pests and diseases of tobacco and chemicals used. Part. 2. Main chemicals used on tobacco
SEITA, Institut du Tabac France - Philip Morris, USA - Rothmans Int., UK
This 2n part of the survey made in 1987, summarize the informations collected on the main pesticides used on tobacco in 50 tobacco growing countries, their frequency of use, field of application, the pest and diseases controlled, and also the maximum residues tolerance permitted in some countries. Without the mixtures, nor the chemicals used to protect tobacco during storage, 119 different active ingredients at least have been counted for tobacco pest control (including 35 insecticides, 14 nematicides, 36 fungicides, 8 suckericides and 26 herbicides). Since the last survey realized in 1974, we note the apparition of new molecules and disparition of some products. Amongst insecticides, synthetic pyrethrinoïdes are more and more used. Dithiocarbamates (mancozeb > zineb > propineb and maneb) are the more popular fungicides used on tobacco. Metalaxyl associated (or not) with dithiocarbamates is also of a large usage, principally against blue mold and black shank. For c hemical control of suckers fatty alcohol and maleic hydrazide are the more frequently employed. Chemical weeds control become a more frequent practice, principally because the development of new herbicides. Several countries organize legislation concerning pesticides residues and propose maximum tolerances. But, no coherence is existing between the different legislation, and these rules may become difficult the use of some chemicals on tobacco, principally in the case of exportation.