Review of Recent Lung Biomarkers of Potential Harm/Effect for Tobacco Research
BMK Technical Report
Overall, in the past decade, researchers have identified many potential biomarkers of smoking related lung diseases, including COPD. The existing tools such as spirometry may not address all the current gaps; while other cutting-edge imaging tools are rapidly developing and promising for the identification of novel biomarkers.
This review identified existing and new biomarkers that have potential for being predictive biomarkers in smokers and COPD subjects, as well as provide insights into disease development and progression. All these identified biomarkers require further development and fit-for-purpose assessments including validation of the biomarkers in tobacco and nicotine context and understanding their potential role in the development of disease.