CORESTA Meeting, Agronomy/Phytopathology, Bucharest, 2003, AP 12

Progress achieved in the breeding of semi-oriental tobacco in Romania

NASTASE I.; PAUNESCU M.; PAUNESCU A.D.; CIUPERCA A.; STROESCU M.; IOAN C.; ISPAS F.
Central Research Station for Tobacco Culture and Industrialization, Bucharest, Romania.

The Romanian semi-oriental tobacco (Ghimpati) is considered to be the most typical native tobacco, having specific qualitative, physical-chemical, aroma, taste and smoking characteristics.

The research conducted upon the semi-oriental biological material aimed at the release of cultivars to show many valuable characteristics and to satisfy the needs of the cigarette industry as well as the needs of the growers:

  • high yield potential (1,500 - 1,800 kgs/ha);
  • balanced chemical composition (1.5 - 1.8% nicotine, over 6% soluble carbohydrates, 4 - 6% albuminoid substances etc.);
  • good industrial quality (over 45 - 50% tobacco at the first class of quality, up to 4 - 6% tobacco at the third class of quality, uniform color, yellow-orange, of the leaves after curing, good smoking properties etc.);
  • resistance to the main tobacco diseases in the seedbed and in the field (Chalara elegans , TMV, PVY, Peronospora tabacina Adam).

The results of the experiments conducted in 2000-2002 through comparative cultures at the Experimental field Tamasesti, allow to emphasise the following cultivars:

- Ghimpati 84: constantly achieve higher yields that the control, Ghimpati 55, (1,447 kgs/ha), with over 94% tobacco at the first two classes of quality and a balanced chemical composition (1.9% nicotine, 14% carbohydrates, 5.8% albumines). Shows resistance to viruses in the field and to artificial infections with Chalara elegans;

- Ghimpati 90: surpasses the control for yield (1,408 kgs/ha), resulting over 96% tobacco at the 1st and 2nd classes of quality. The content of nicotine is somewhat higher (2.0%), and that of carbohydrates (7.2%) and albumins (5%) and is specific for the semi-oriental tobaccos;

- Ghimpati 88: it is distinguished by higher yield potential compared with the control (1,379 kgs/ha), good industrial quality (94% tobacco at the first two classes of quality) and balanced chemical composition of the tobacco obtained. It proved to be resistant to Chalara elegans and did not show sensibility to viruses in the field.

The cultivars Ghimpati 84 and Ghimpati 90 are presently tested in the National Testing Network for full release. The results obtained in the comparative culture and in verifying plots by the cultivar Ghimpati 111 (recently released) recommend it be used on larger scale production, along with the acknowledged cultivar Ghimpati 55.